From inside the for every situation, all the questions concerned about both face-to-deal with and online relationship

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From inside the for every situation, all the questions concerned about both face-to-deal with and online relationship


So you're able to gauge the sized the latest community away from deal with-to-face relatives, what exactly in the Happiness Questionnaire Screen (Helliwell and you may Huang, 2013) were used: “Up to just how many family unit members are you experiencing?.” It question was replied for the a level of just one less than 5 friends to 5 over 50 household members. Issue to assess the dimensions of online friend networking sites is actually similar (Helliwell and Huang, 2013): “Up to exactly how many family unit members do you have on the Facebook?” nevertheless impulse scale was different, between step one below 50 to 8 more than 1000.

The questions for the top-notch dating used in the newest European Public Survey was indeed adapted to assess top-notch face-to-face and online relationships. The questions was basically: “Exactly how many people have you got with whom you is also discuss sexual and personal issues?” and you may “Just how many of those people is the Myspace members of the family?.” Brand new reaction measure varied from just one (none) in order to eight (10 or higher).

A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett's test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends' observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.


To evaluate future health, as well as the detected wellness item often used in globally studies (e.grams., Eriksson et al., 2001 – “How do you rate your health in general” that have responses toward a beneficial 5-part scale, ranging from decent to very bad) the four items of new future health aspect of Condition away from Wellness Survey SF-thirty-six (Ware and you will Sherbourne, 1992) was indeed incorporated. A typical example of all the questions was: “I appear to become ill a little smoother than many other some one.” These products were replied on a beneficial 5-section size, anywhere between step 1 undoubtedly not the case in order to 5 certainly correct. The 5 things demonstrated an acceptable precision (? = 0.72) therefore the average of one's four products are computed because the sign out-of care about-said future health.

Mental health was assessed via four affairs regarding the SF-thirty-six (Ware and you can Sherbourne, 1992). An example is “How frequently have you sensed very nervous during the last cuatro days?.” This type of questions had been replied on the a 5-part scale, anywhere between to not ever always. Because level of internal texture of the things that is a good (? = 0.80), the fresh signal out-of mental health is determined, averaging the fresh new answers to these four concerns.

The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.

The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.


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